Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Germany (BAST)
The Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) is a technical and scientific research institute responsible to the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital (BMVI). BASt acts as a scientific adviser to the Federal Ministry on technical matters and transport policy and plays a leading role in the formulation of specifications and standards. BASt conducts its own research work on issues of special significance on its testing plants. Its tasks include consulting services and drawing up experts reports. BASt also assesses the quality of services and products, for which it carries out accreditation, testing, certification, acknowledgement an approval tasks and also seminars. Most of BASt areas of work involve co-operation with other research agencies, particularly institutes associated with universities and colleges. Its work is oriented towards defined aims. In 1951, BASt began to conduct research into road construction. In 1965, BASt was commissioned to increase its activities beyond road construction to include work on improving the operational efficiency and safety of roads. In 1970, BASt was appointed by the German Federal Parliament to be the central agency for road traffic accident research.
BASt is represented in the committees of over 100 international organisations. In Europe, the BASt is represented in diverse organisations, including: the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), the European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee (EEVC), the European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC), the Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR), the European Conference of Transport Research Institutes (ECTRI), the Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories (FEHRL), the Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI), European Union research committees/networks as well as the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). At the scientific level, the BASt is active on a worldwide basis in the committees of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Road Association (PIARC) and the United Nation’s Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). One of the focuses is on technical standardisation in the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) and the Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN).
BASt took part in 102 Framework Programme projects since 1990, including 15 from the 6th FP and 30 from the 7th FP. Additionally BASt carries out around 300 annual projects of its own and for the Federal Ministry of Transport with an annual budget of 30 million Euros. BASt has a staff of more than 400 who work in more than 40 different disciplines. Engineers, natural and human scientists, economists, technicians and administration staff contribute with professional solutions to solving the diverse tasks BASt faces.
BASt officially represents Germany within the consumer testing organisation Euro NCAP and is appointed as German Euro NCAP Test Lab. BASt also partially funds and supports the German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS and therefore has unlimited access to one of the most comprehensive accident databases worldwide.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
BASt acts on the one hand as the project technical coordinator in the SENIORS project. On the other hand BASt takes part in all technical Work Packages, covering fields of accident and behavior analysis, research on biomechanics, testing and simulation work, theoretical and practical test tool development and finally benefit estimation.
Autoliv is the market leading manufacturer of vehicle safety products. Autoliv Development AB is the research branch where a team of researchers, in close collaboration with universities, institutions, authorities and OEM:s, work with real-life data analysis, CAE-modelling (FE Human body models), Test and design, Active safety, Sensing, Biomechanics, and restraint development.
Autoliv has a state of the art test facility. Experimental workshop for prototype work. Large family of crash test dummies including the most recent developed. State of the art CAE capabilities, with highly experienced FE-modelling knowledge regarding automotive safety and biomechanics.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
Autoliv will perform human body simulations with the THUMS and evaluate updated protection systems modified according to findings from the project.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Group Automobiles Spa is a well-known European car manufacturer with extensive experience in all class cars, light and heavy trucks and in all fields, which relate to the vehicle (design, testing, production and environment). Fiat is strongly involved in the use and development of new tools and techniques for design, testing and production of its products.
Fiat, with own Safety Center in Orbassano, is currently active in research in the field of car occupant protection and unprotected road users safety and in all aspects which refer to the automobile passive safety, the protection of occupants and the use of dummy mathematical models.
Fiat Safety Center was estabilished in Orbassano (Italy) in 1976, and is responsible for all crash test activities on vehicle systems (i.e., body frame, airbag and seat belts, seats, etc.).
In order to achieve safety objectives in an efficient manner, design systems are initially tested virtually, and subsequently full-scale crash tests and simulations are performed using experimental tools such as the HyGe crash sled. The FGA crash test track in Orbassano is one of the most notable features of the Safety Center. Built two years ago, it is one of the most advanced crash test sites in the world. The automated crash barrier allows for many types of impact and by means of the automatic positioning system of 13 high-speed cameras, the set can be prepared in a few seconds. Another technological advancement is the electronic sled which tows the vehicles to ensure that they are crashed at the exact speed required. It is located underneath the track and can reach speeds of up to 100 km/h. So far, nearly 18,000 crash tests have been done, with approximately 500 tests performed every year.
Since 2010 Fiat Safety Center have to be enlarged considering the contribute of the following teams at the Fiat Pomigliano Technical Center (Naples):
- Restraint System Integration, to assess the performance of restraint systems virtually or with specific bench equipment (Airbag static deployments testing area)
- Product Safety & Innovation, to analyze the vehicle safety system performance in real world collisions, with results leading to the development of future active and passive safety systems.
Fiat has already been partner in the previous European project VC-Compat and FIMCAR in the car to car accident reconstructions to develop a suite of draft test procedures to assess and control the car frontal structure and a framework for a crash compatibility rating systems.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
FIAT foresees main contribution in the following fields: Accidentology (task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3), Biomechanic (task 2.2, 2.3,2.4 and 2.5), Test tool developments (task 3.1), Testing and procedure (task 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3), Dissemination (task 5.1 and 5.2).
Fiat Leads the task 2.2, where it is involved to performing innovative EMG studies in a virtual environment (driving simulators), which proved to be more effective as cause anticipatory reactions during pre-crash.
Additionally FIAT is mainly involved in the activities related to the development of assessment and test procedures (WP4), putting its testing facilities in service of the SENIORS project for the development and of advanced testing tools and assessment of new safety systems.
Ford is one of the leading automobile manufacturers globally and involved in all major segments of the market, including small to large passenger vehicles, SUVs, pick-up trucks, and light and heavy commercial vehicles. Ford has operations around the world in all major regions. The European arm (Ford of Europe – FoE) of the company is headquartered in Germany which is organisationally belonging to Ford-Werke GmbH and has Product Development centres in Cologne (D) and Dunton (UK), globally responsible for small passenger cars (up to C-class) and light commercial vehicles. The Ford Automotive Safety Office (ASO) deals with all safety, public domain, and accident research activities primarily for FoE but also globally. ASO is involved on a regular basis on all regulatory and standards development activities and makes extensive use of real world data in developing positions for the corporation. The Ford of Europe Product Development (PD) organisation is responsible for the complete concept development of all passive safety measures to the benefit of pedestrians which starts with fundamental research, stretches across bringing ideas to series-production readiness and finalises in implementation strategies cross carline. In the field of occupant protection the PD team of FoE spends extensive efforts in adapting passive safety systems to the needs of the various vehicle users always ensuring the interaction between active and passive safety measures is optimised. The close collaboration with the PD and the research teams from e.g. Ford in North America and also other regions enables Ford as global player to take into account scientific findings from many regions of the world.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
Main contribution of Ford in this project will be in the section of Accidentology and Behaviour of Elderly in Road Traffic where Ford will lead the task 1.2 to generate novel information. Furthermore Ford will be involved in the definition of all test programs in the various subtasks and will support the definition of requirements and their validation process. Finally Ford will become engaged in the dissemination activities especially with its connection to the US.
Humanetics Europe GmbH was founded in 2010 as an outcome of the merger between First Technology Safety Systems and Robert Denton ATD. HEG is the world’s largest creator of sophisticated crash test dummies and computer crash test systems. HEG and its affiliated companies are globally recognized for advanced innovation in crash test dummies and equivalent numerical models.
The research, development, manufacturing and testing of European crash test dummies and related systems occur in HEG facilities in Heidelberg (Germany) and Delft (The Netherlands). These sites offer state-of-the-art tools for design, prototyping, calibration and testing of the dummies. HEG is staffed with 45 employees, including several researchers and engineers involved in design, development and applications of hardware dummies and numerical dummy models.
The HEG relationship to the project is the gained know-how and experience in the development of test and assessment tools addressing elderly to be implemented in existing test tools like the THOR frontal impact dummy. In addition HEG will provide advice to the Dutch government and to the EC for regulation purposes and to Euro NCAP for consumer rating purposes.
HEG (formerly FTSS) has participated in several FP projects among which: APROSYS, CHILD, APSN (NI), COVER (CSA), THORAX, ASSESS, EPOCh, CASPER, FIMCAR, ADSEAT and ASPECSS
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
Rapid prototyping tools for dummy prototype realization, CAD tools for dummy design, dummy FE models for internal usage in design feasibility studies
IDIADA, as a global partner to the automotive industry, provides complete solutions for automotive development projects worldwide. IDIADA’s Technical Centre is located 70 km south of Barcelona (Spain), having 26 subsidiaries and branch offices in several European, Asian, African and American countries, with a total work force of around 1800 employees.
The core services provided by IDIADA are: Engineering, Proving Ground services and Homologation. Main fields of engineering activity are power train, emissions, noise & vibration, fatigue & durability and active and passive safety.
IDIADA’s proving ground is recognized as one of the best facilities in the world, and is renowned for the quality of its customer service. As a multi-user facility, safety and confidentiality are of the highest priority. Summer temperatures are ideal for hot climate tests and development programmes are able to continue independently of the weather, making this facility the first choice regardless of the type of testing.
Among the Passive Safety engineering services provided by IDIADA it must be emphasized:
- full-scale crash tests (Euro NCAP and FIA official test house) and vehicle and occupant protection simulation
- dynamic impact tests and simulation for pedestrian and interior protection
- sled tests (reverse acceleration and deceleration sled facilities) and simulation for restraint system development
- misuse tests for airbag sensor development
- analysis and optimisation of bus and coach structures
- design and optimisation of HGV chassis and trailers
IDIADA develops a major role under the frame of Euro NCAP, representing the Catalan Government in the Board of Directors and being the only laboratory fully accredited for executing all tests under the safety programme.
Furthermore, the company, in its capacity as technical consultant for the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (MCYT), holds the representation of the Spanish Government in several bodies dealing with automotive research and regulation, such as EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee) and UN ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) Working Groups. In the same way, IDIADA is member of several working groups where safety standards are developed (GRSP, ISO), thus permitting the acquisition of a complete view in the field of safety.
IDIADA has a long experience as an Official Technical Service for European Homologation as it is a type approval agency officially empowered for European vehicle and systems homologation and it is accredited for the whole list of European EU Directives and UN/ECE Regulations applicable to vehicles and components:
- European Directives applicable to M1 vehicles.
- European Directives applicable to M2 / M3 vehicles.
- European Directives applicable to N1 / N2 vehicles.
- European Directives applicable to N2 / N3 vehicles.
Additionally, IDIADA has also a high level of international recognition even in non-European countries: South America, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Gulf Countries, etc. It is able of carrying out tests according to standards valid for self-certification (USA, Canada, and Australia).
IDIADA has wide experience in R+D projects and activities at a national and European level. R+D activities are performed targeting two main objectives. First of all, carry out investigations and developments that allow positioning IDIADA before its competitors, offering new testing methodologies or new development solutions.
Also, R+D is seen as the best tool for dissemination of the activities an capacities of IDIADA.
IDIADA has participated in the last four framework programmes for innovation coordinated by the European Commission. IDIADA’s participation in innovation activites has exponentially increased in the last years, from the two projects of FP4 to the 23 in FP7.
Among others, IDIADA participated in the following European research projects: DECADE (Development and validation of a highly accurate Emissions simulation tool capable of Comparatively Assessing vehicles operating unDEr dynamic conditions), APROSYS (Advanced Protective Systems), APSN (Advanced Passive Safety Network), FURORE (Future Road Research), TRACE (Traffic Accident Causation in Europe). In FP7, IDIADA has taken part in eVALUE (active safety systems evaluation), ASSESS (Pre-crash systems evaluation), Smart RRS (road restraint systems), EPOCh and CASPER (child safety), EAGAR (R+D policies worldwide) SARTRE (road trains) and FIMCAR (crash compatibility).
In addition, IDIADA has lead four research projects: eVADER, AsPeCSS, LNG Blue Corridors and Volar-e. IDIADA is also accredited under the Spanish norm UNE-166000, which defines the research process in a company.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
IDIADA acts as a Project Manager and Work Package leader in the project. It will lead the activities related to the development of assessment and test procedures and have a limited participation in the cost benefit analysis. Additionally IDIADA will put its testing facilities in service of the SENIORS project for the development and of advanced testing tools and assessment of new safety systems in tasks 2.5, 3.3 and 4.2 respectively. Additionally, the expertise in road safety analysis acquired in the last EC projects will be used in tasks 1.2 and 1.3.
LUDWIG-MAXIMILIANS-UNIVERSITAET MUENCHEN (LMU)
Founded as Bavaria’s first university with a papal concession in 1472, LMU today is Germany’s excellence program’s biggest winner. In the first round of proposals in 2006, LMU Muenchen was already awarded all three of the Initiative’s lines of funding and was selected as a “university of excellence”.
The Institute for Legal Medicine as the largest of its kind in Germany belongs to the Faculty of Medicine. One of the main responsibilities of the institute is the detailed investigation of traffic accident casualties. With a link to this work the institute has built strong research activities. Topics addressed by the Accident Analysis and Biomechanics Groups include accident and trauma analysis as well as injury mechanics. The primary field of application is road traffic safety, but this is extending to neighbouring topics.
Related projects cover a wide range of improvement and application of injury mechanics knowledge, such as elderly car occupants (funding by German Federal Highway Safety Institute BASt). LMU Muenchen has been a partner in several European research projects on the development and application of digital human models for road traffic safety (HUMOS1+2, APROSYS), volunteer testing of human movements and reactions (ROLLOVER, PISa) as well as accident analysis (TRACE, COST327, WHIPLASHII). Within the Biomechanics and Accident Analysis Groups, more than 15 scientists from Medicine, Physics, Engineering, Sport Science and Anthropology contribute to human modelling, the reconstruction of accidents, set-up of accident databases and the development of safety measures. LMU are collecting fatal accident data in their in-house database.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
LMU’s activities within SENIORS will focus mainly on performing human body modeling and simulation tasks for representing the elderly in virtual crash environments. The University has access to state-of-the-art models such as the Global Human Body Model and THUMS that will be used along with the experimental results to understand injury causation in the elderly. Another main focus will be on monitoring and steering experiments with Post Mortem Human Surrogates and volunteers to provide data to validate the new tools and criteria to be developed within the project.
TRL was established in 1933 as the ‘Road Research Laboratory’ (RRL) – part of the UK Government’s Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). In 1992 it became an Executive Agency of the Department of Transport and was renamed again as the ‘Transport Research Laboratory’. In April 1996 TRL became a fully private limited company, wholly owned by TRF (Transport Research Foundation) which is a non-profit distributing company and a Scientific Research Organisation. TRL has a pedigree of over 70 years as the UK’s centre of excellence in transport and related research and advice.
TRL provides a wide range of experience in all aspects of transport including safety, infrastructure, operations, human factors and environmental issues.. TRL h employs around 350 technical professionals, including engineers, mathematicians, physicists, psychologists, geologists, computer experts, statisticians, and our knowledge is used by many organisations including governments and local authorities, the EC, the FIA, F1 race teams, vehicle manufacturers, transport infrastructure owners, vehicle operators, and consumers. Facilities include state of the art driving simulators, impact test facilities, structures hall and a specialist helmet test facility.
TRL’s primary objective is to conduct commissioned research, investigations, studies and tests to the highest levels of quality, reliability and impartiality. TRL carries out its work in such a way as to ensure that clients receive results that not only meet the project specification, but are also geared to rapid and effective implementation.
TRL’s breadth of expertise and facilities, with world acknowledged independence, provides clients with a knowledge based capability across the whole transport field, and brings the multi-disciplinary approach needed to generate effective solutions.
The Company prides itself on its record for delivering projects that meet clients’ quality, delivery and cost targets. This is driven by a programme of continuous improvement in which client satisfaction is reviewed continuously to ensure that performance matches increasing expectations. TRL operates a quality management system, which is certificated as complying with BS EN ISO 9001.
KEY ROLE IN THE PROJECT
TRL will have a critical input to the accident investigation component of the project through access to and in-depth understanding of the UK RAIDS collision database. TRL runs the RAIDS study on behalf of the UK Department for Transport and developed the technical and ethical protocols for data collection.
We will lead WP 2 (Biomechanics), building on our experience leading biomechanics and dummy development work package in recent Framework projects such as SIBER, FID, APROSYS and THORAX. The TRL team has considerable experience of the development of tools and test procedures for implementation in legislation and consumer information testing, which will be applied throughout this project. We have led the development of methods for defining biofidelity requirements and injury risk functions, which enable regulators to set performance requirements that will deliver predicted benefits proportionate to the cost of implementation.